Paper alert: Screening for post-stroke neurocognitive disorders in diverse populations: a systematic review

Paper alert: Screening for post-stroke neurocognitive disorders in diverse populations: a systematic review

  • On 24/07/2023

Shonimá Gangaram-Panday, Yanyao Zhou & Celine Gillebert


Objective: Although neurocognitive disorders (NCD) are common post-stroke, many populations do not have adapted cognitive screens and cut-offs. We therefore reviewed the appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) for diagnosing NCD in culturally diverse stroke populations. Method: Using an extensive search string, diagnostic accuracy studies for MMSE, MoCA and OCS in the stroke population were retrieved from four databases. We compared translations and adaptations, adjustments in scores and cut-offs, and their diagnostic accuracy. Results: The search resulted in 28 MMSE, 39 MoCA and 5 OCS-studies in 13 western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic (WEIRD) and 4 other countries. There was a lack of studies on South-American, African, and non-Chinese-Asian populations. All three tests needed adaptation for less WEIRD populations and populations with languages with non-Latin features. Optimal MMSE and OCS subtest cut-offs were similar across WEIRD and less WEIRD populations, whereas optimal MoCA cut-offs appeared lower for less WEIRD populations. The use of adjusted scores resulted in different optimal cut-offs or similar cut-offs with better accuracy. Conclusions: MoCA, MMSE and OCS are promising tools for diagnosing post-stroke-NCD. For culturally diverse populations, translation, adaptation and adjusted scores or cut-offs are necessary for diagnostic accuracy. Available studies report scarcely about their sample’s cultural background and there is a lack of diagnostic accuracy studies in less WEIRD or culturally diverse populations. Future studies should report more cultural characteristics of their sample to provide better insight into the tests’ accuracy in culturally diverse populations.

Full text: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in The Clinical Neuropsychologist on 22 July 2023, available at